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        2019年10月自考英语备考:英语二阅读辅导(四)

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          The New Music

          The new music was built out of materials already in existence: blues, rock'n'roll, folk music. But although the forms remained, something completely new and original was made out of these older elements - more original, perhaps, than even the new musicians themselves yet realize. The transformation took place in 1966-1967. Up to that time, the blues had been an essentially black medium.

          Rock'n'roll, a blues derivative, was rhythmic dance music. Folk music, old and modern, was popular among college students. The three forms remained musically and culturally distinct, and even as late as 1965, none of them were expressing any radically new states of consciousness.

          Blues expressed black soul; rock was the beat of youthful energy; and folk music expressed anti-war sentiments as well as love and hope.

          In 1966-1967 there was spontaneous transformation. In the United States, it originated with youthful rock groups playing in San Francisco. In England, it was led by the Beatles, who were already established as an extremely fine and highly individual rock group.

          What happened, as well as it can be put into words, was this. First, the separate musical traditions were brought together. Bob Dylan and the Jefferson Airplane played folk rock, folk ideas with a rock beat.

          White rock groups began experimenting with the blues. Of course, white musicians had always played the blues, but essentially as imitators of the Negro style; now it began to be the white bands' own music. And all of the groups moved towards a broader eclecticism and synthesis.

          They freely took over elements from jazz, from American country music, and as time went on from even more diverse sources. What developed was a music readily taking on various forms and capable of an almost limitless range of expression.

          The second thing that happened was that all the musical groups began using the full range of electric instruments and the technology of electronic amplifiers. The electric guitar was an old instrument, but the new electronic effects were altogether different - so different that a new listener in 1967 might well feel that there had never been may sounds like that in the world before. Electronics did, in fact, make possible sounds that no instrument up to that time could produce. And in studio recordings, new techniques made possible effects that not even an electronic band could produce live.

          Electronic amplifiers also made possible a fantastic increase in volume, the music becoming as loud and penetrating as the human ear could stand, and thereby achieving a "total" effect, so that instead of an audience of passive listeners, there were now audiences of total participants, feeling the music in all of their senses and all of bones.

          Third, the music becomes a multi-media experience; a port of a total environment. The walls of the ballrooms were covered with changing patterns of light, the beginning of the new art of the light show. And the audience did not sit, it danced. With records at home, listeners imitated these lighting effects as best they could, and heightened the whole experience by using drugs. Often music was played out of doors, where nature provided the environment.

          新音乐

          新音乐的素材来源于布鲁斯、摇滚和民间音乐,虽然保存了它们的形式,但从这些较早的音乐中却产生了一些全新而富有创意的东西--也许比新的音乐家所意识到的还有创意。这种变化发生于1966-1967年间,这之前布鲁斯一直是黑人音乐的基本表现形式。

          摇滚衍生于布鲁斯,是一种很有节奏的舞蹈音乐。而民间音乐,不论古老的还是现代的,都很受大学生们的喜爱。这三种形式一直保留着音乐和文化上和特色,甚至到了1965年,他们中也没有一种形式表达一些全新的意识形态。

          布鲁斯表达黑人的情感;摇滚是青春活力的跳动;而民间音乐表现爱、希望以及反战情绪。

          1966-1967年这些音乐形势自然而然地发生了变化。这一变化在美国起始于旧金山演出的青年摇滚乐队,在英国则由甲壳虫乐队领先,他们当时已经成立了非常不错、极有个性的摇滚组合。当时所发生的一切尽可能诉诸文字如下。

          首先那些独立的音乐传统融合起来。鲍勃迪伦和杰菲逊飞机乐队演奏的民间摇滚将民歌的歌词配上了摇滚节奏。白人摇滚乐队也开始尝试布鲁斯。其实白人音乐家一直都在严奏布鲁斯,不过基本是模仿黑人的风范的折衷与融合。他们随意的从爵士乐、乡村音乐中吸取养分,随着时间的推移甚至从更多来源中各取所需,很快一种形式各异的极具有表现力的音乐形成了。

          其次所有的音乐组合都开始使用全套电子乐器和电子扩间技术。吉他是旧式乐器,但是新的电子效果却完全不同,在1967年第一次听到它的人恐怕会感觉到以前世界上从来没有像这样的音响。电子技术确实制造出了此前乐器无法发出的各种声响。在录音室录音,新的技术能做出连电子乐队现场都演奏不出的效果。电子放大器也可以使音量大到极至,音乐显得洪亮而有穿透力,震耳欲聋,因而达到一种彻底的效果,使得听众不再是被动的接受者,而是完全地投入,用整个身心去感受音乐。

          第三,音乐成为一种多媒体的感受、整个环境中的一部分。舞厅的墙上闪烁着变幻莫测的灯光。这是新的灯光艺术的开始。观众不是正襟危坐,而是跳动不已。家中有唱片的人会模仿那些灯光效果,并使用实物来加强整体的感觉。音乐还往往以大自然为背景室外演奏。

          Different Types of Composers

          I can see three different types of composers in musical history, each of whom creates music in a somewhat different fashion.

          The type that has fired public imagination most is that of the spontaneously inspired composer - the Franz Schubert type, in other words. All composers are inspired, of course, but this type is more spontaneously inspired. Music simply wells out of him. He can't get it down on paper fast enough. You can almost tell this type of composer by his fruitful output. In certain months, Schubert wrote a song a day. Hugo Wolf did the same.

          In a sense, men of this kind begin not so much with a musical theme as with a completed composition. They invariably work best in the shorter forms. It is much easier to improvise a song than it is to improvise a symphony. It isn't easy to be inspired in that spontaneous way for long periods at a stretch. Even Schubert was more successful in handling the shorter forms of music. The spontaneously inspired man is only one type of composer, with this own limitations.

          Beethoven belongs to the second type - the constructive type, one might call it. This type serves as an example of my theory of the creative process in music better than any other, because in this case the composer really does begin with a musical theme. In Beethoven's case there is no doubt about it, for we have the notebooks in which he put the themes down. We can see from his notebooks how he worked over his themes - how he would not let them be until they were as perfect as he could make them. Beethoven was not a spontaneously inspired composer in the

          Schubert sense at all. He was the type that begins with a theme; makes it a preliminary idea; and upon that composes a musical work, day after day, in painstaking fashion. Most composers since Beethoven's day belong to this second type.

          The third type of composer I can only call, for lack of a better name, the traditionalist type. Men like Palestrina and Bach belong in this category.

          They both are characteristic of the kind of composer who is born in a particular period of musical history, when a certain musical style is about to reach its fullest development. It is a question at such a time of creating music in a well-known and accepted style and doing it in a way that is better than anyone has done it before you.

          The traditionalist type of composer begins with a pattern rather than with a theme. The creative act with Palestrina is not the thematic conception so much as the personal treatment of a well-established pattern. And even Bach, who composed forty-eight of the most various and inspired themes in his Well Tempered Clavichord, knew in advance the general formal mold that they were to fill. It goes without saying that we are not living in a traditionalist period nowadays.

          One might add, for the sake of completeness, a fourth type of composer - the pioneer type: men like Gesualdo in the seventeenth century,

          Moussorgsky and Berlioz in the nineteenth, Debussy and Edgar Varese in the twentieth. It is difficult to summarize the composing methods of so diversified a group. One can safely say that their approach to composition is the opposite of the traditionalist type.

          They clearly oppose conventional solutions of musical problems. In many ways, their attitude is experimental - they seek to add new harmonies, new sonorities, new formal principles. The pioneer type was the characteristic one at the turn of the seventeenth century and also at the beginning of the twentieth century, but it is much less evident today.

          不同类型的音乐家

          我发现音乐史上有三种不同类型的作曲家,他们各自创作的方式有不同。最能激发公众想象力的是自发式灵感型即弗朗兹·舒伯特型。当然所有的作曲家都需要灵感,但这一类型的更具自发的灵感,音乐简直就是喷涌而出,多得来不及记录,通过他们多产的作品你几乎可以一下就认出他们。有几个月舒伯特几乎谱成一曲,伍尔夫·雨果也是如此。

          从一定意义上说,这类作曲家不是从一个主题开始而是从一部完整的作品一气呵成。他们总是擅长短形式的作品。即兴创作一支歌曲比即兴创作一部交响曲要简单得多。要长时间连续不断的获得自发的灵感不容易,就是舒伯特也是短形式的音乐方面更为成功。自发式灵感型人只是作曲家的一种,他有他自己的局限。

          贝多芬属于第二类--可以称之为建设型。和其他类型相比,这类作曲家更适合我的音乐创作过程理论的例证,因为对这类作曲家来说,他们的确是从音乐主题开始创作的。以贝多芬为例这一点毋庸质疑,因为我们有他记下音乐主题的笔记本。我们可以从他的笔记本看出他是如何在主题上下功夫的--曲不完美誓不休。从舒伯特的意义上说,贝多芬蕝对不是灵感自发型的作曲家。他是那类从主题开始、形成初步的构思再日复一日辛勤地创作一部作品的作曲家。从贝多芬开始,许多的作曲家都属于这第二类。

          由于找不到更合适的称呼,第三类作曲家姑且称他们为传统类。帕勒斯提那的创作活动与其说是主题概念不如说是对既定模式的个性化处理。即使创作了 48首主题各异充满灵感的《平均律钢琴曲集》的巴赫也知道他们将遵循的一般模式。不用说今天我们不是生活在一个传统时期。

          为完整起见也许还应加上第四种作曲家--先锋型,诸如17世纪的杰苏尔多、19世纪的穆索尔斯基和柏辽兹,以及20世纪的德彪西和瓦雷兹。这样一类作曲家如此多样化的创作手法难以概括,但可以肯定的一点是他们的作曲方法与传统型针锋相对。

          他们鲜明地反对音乐问题的通行解决办法。许多方面他们的态度是试验的--寻求添加新的融合、新的音效、新的创作形式。先锋型在17世纪末和20世纪初期很具代表性,但是如今其特征已不太明显。


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